History of Disney World – How Walt Disney World Came About

Although Walt Disney never saw the fruition of Disney World while he was still alive, it was really his concept to make it. That’s why relating the history of Disney World would naturally begin with him. His concept lived on even after he died through his brother, Roy Disney.

Walt Disney’s Idea

Walt Disney didn’t just want another Disneyland. He dreamed of something much more than Disneyland and yet similar to it. He still wanted to bring entertainment in his theme parks. But he wanted to have a place where he could constantly add or develop something new to his original park and structures. Not only that, he wanted to test his concepts of urban planning through this project. True enough, what now emerged as the EPCOT or the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow was actually sprung out of his ideas.

From Opening Up to Now

Walt Disney World opened in October 1, 1971, five years later after the death of Walt Disney. It opened up with Disney’s Contemporary Resort, Polynesian Resort and Fort Wilderness Resort and Campground.

In the following year, Disney’s Village Resort with the tree house and the vacation villas was added. Then Disney’s Golf Resort and Discovery Island were next opened in the next two years. In 1975, the Fairway Villas and the Walt Disney Village Marketplace were built up.

Come June 1976, Disney’s River Country Water Park was added. In 1980, the Walt Disney World Conference Center and another village resort, the Club Lake villas, were put up. Then in 1982, EPCOT came about.

In 1988, Disney’s Grand Floridian Resort and Caribbean Beach Resort became available. And then 1989, more parks were added. The MGM Studios, the Typhoon Lagoon Water Park and Pleasure Island were opened.

In the years 1990 to 1992, more resorts were made for the guests. These were Disney’s Yacht and Beach Club Resort, Walt Disney Swan and Dolphin Resort, Port Orleans Resort, Old Key West Resort and Disney’s Dixie Landings Resort. Disney Vacation Club and Bonnet Creek Golf Club were also added to the growing Walt Disney World.

In 1994, Disney’s All-Star Sports Resort and Disney’s Wilderness Lodge were made available. Then in 1995, Disney’s All-Star Music Resort, Blizzard Beach Water Park and Fairytale Wedding Pavilion were installed.

The following year, the Disney Institute and Disney’s Boardwalk Resort became ready. The Coronado Springs Resort followed in 1997. Disney’s Wide World of Sports and Downtown Disney West Side came that same year too; while Disney’s Animal Kingdom and Disney Quest just came in 1998. In 1999, it was Disney’s All-Star Movies Resort that was added. In 2001 and 2003, Disney’s Animal Kingdom Lodge and Pop Century Resort were added respectively. Finally, Disney’s Saratoga’s Springs Resort and Spa came about in 2004.

This completes the list of facilities made available through the years. The history of Disney World has really come a long way and it still continues each day as it touches the lives of many of its guests.

Creating Your Perfect Article Summary – 7 Tips

What should be in your article summary?

It’s otherwise known as an abstract or article teaser. The purpose of your article summary is to entice a potential reader to read the rest of your article. It’s a sales pitch for the benefits your article delivers and in many cases, it makes the difference as to whether your article gets read or bypassed.

Remove your “author/writer” hat and put on your “copywriter” thinking cap:

Here’s what should be in your article summary:

  • Should be 2-7 sentences in length
  • Emotional benefits listed that speak directly to your target reader’s interests.
  • Reasons why your target ideal reader should continue reading your article.
  • Mentions of at least 4-7 keywords relating to your article topic using keyword research tools.

Here’s what should not be in your article summary:

  • Do not repeat the title of your article or your author name in your summary. This is redundant.
  • Leave out the sales pitch for yourself or your business.
  • Leave out your URL and email address.
  • Leave out any blatant self-promotion. You’re here to do blatant article-promotion, not self- promotion.
  • Never more than 2 paragraphs or 14 sentences.

7 Quick Tips To Help You Write Your Perfect Article Summary:

Tip #1) Don’t start it with words like “This article contains this or that.” Get right to the point and playfully tease your audience with the benefits that they will get if they take the next step to read the rest of your article.

Tip #2) If you don’t know what to put in your summary — use the first paragraph of your article. If you’re a good writer, you already have your first paragraph loaded with hooks to grab the reader’s interests to pull them into the rest of the article.

Tip #3) Your article conclusion paragraph can help provide clues for what should be in your article summary. Just don’t give away the farm in the summary.

Tip #4) Your article summary is about the WHY, not the HOW. Sell them on why what you’re presenting in the article is important to them and that they will learn the “how” if they continue reading.

Tip #5) Keep tips and strategies OUT of your article summary. Why buy the cow when you can get the milk for free. You’re in sales mode, not teach mode.

Tip #6) Use smart keyword density research to ensure your article summary hits the key terms and keywords relating to your article. The worst thing you could do is include an article summary that uses 1-3 syllable words that barely mention your topic category. Be lavish with the rich use of buzz words and keywords that are related to your primary article topic. One word of caution: Write for the reader and not for the search engines. When you cross that line, you reduce your effectiveness over the long-term.

Tip #7) Originality matters. Your article summary should come from your brain. Never copy someone else’s article summary or style if it’s unique to them.

Creating Your Perfect Article Summary Conclusion:

Be brief and bold in your summary – promising the benefits your reader will get if they read on. This is your chance to pitch why your target reader will benefit personally if they continue reading your article. Unlike your resource box where you pitch yourself and your business or website address, the article summary is your article’s only sales pitch. Leverage it well and don’t waste the opportunity by overlooking this important article writing & marketing strategy.

The Various Ways You Can Use Vintage Magazine Ads

Vintage magazine ads – how can you use them? You would be surprised at the various uses for old magazine advertising. They are much more than just old slick paper. The following paragraphs will show you the various things you can do with old back issues of vintage magazine advertising slicks. FYI: “Slicks” is how people in newspaper production describe slick inserts like coupons and department store advertising. Now on to popular and unique ways to utilize old ad prints.

Home Decor

Matting and/or framing is one popular option for antique ads for home decoration. Old ad art prints like those from the 40s and the 50s are highly popular due to the interest in those eras. Some examples of 40s ads might include movie ads like “Casablanca” with Humphrey Bogart, Lucky Strike cigarettes, WW 2 ads and soda ads like Pespi-Cola. The 1950s prints might include cars like the “Rocket” Oldsmobile, vacuum cleaners like Hoover and makeup like Tru-Glo featuring Marilyn Monroe. Imagine the originals being matted and framed for hanging on the wall. It is a really inexpensive option for interior decorating.

Crafting and Artwork

Crafty people love to get creative with these old magazine ads. You will see them used for one-of-a-kind (OOAK) greeting cards, trading cards and gift tags. Scrap booking is a very popular arena where these can be used. Less common uses might include furniture decoupage or wallpaper for a feature wall (they need to be reinforced for this use).

Artwork using vintage magazine ads can include such things as canvas printing or screen printing, digital reproductions and collage art. Creative people and artists can find many more uses than these. This is just a few examples of how you might see them used.

Office Decor

You will find a lot of health care related ads from the 40s and 50s in old magazine ad prints. Some doctors use them for display, in frames, in their offices. Auto repair shops and vintage car shows present old 1950s advertising art prints as a decorative element. Any business can use these old ads as pieces of nostalgic ephemera related to their business.


It can be difficult to find unique gifts, especially for people who seem to have everything. Original vintage magazine ads make very unique gifts because they are technically quite rare. Two examples of how you might be able to use them as gifts.

*1st anniversary is paper gifts which means this is perfect. You just need to find out what the happy couple collects or what hobbies they have and search.

*Grandparents Day is a nice holiday for giving these old vintage magazine ads. Utilize their time period and make a collage or just get an ad or two for framing.

Every person is different which means each individual will likely find various ways to use these old ads. It doesn’t take a lot of creativity or imagination to make use of these collectible and decorative ads.

Questions and Questions … How About Answers?

Have you ever thought about kids at age 4 or so, ask
questions all day long about everything and anything.
But then, years pass and where did the questions go?

Why after the youth do the questions go? Is it because
of knowledge or is it because of lack of interest? What
do you think?

What questions do you ask yourself about your life and
about your purpose and about your goals whether they
be about business or personal aspects?

Do your questions look something like this?

Who am I? Where am I going? Why do I exist? What
what I put on Earth for? Is there more to my life then
just getting up and going to bed and going to work and
going to?

What about my finances? Was I put here to be rich and
if so, where is the money? Do I play the lottery expecting
to win or working hard at work or at taking control of my
own destiny with working on your own business. Or, what
about this … Since I have all the money in the world, why
am I not happy and content?

What about social and fun? Do you have fun and laugh and
do you quesion what fun would be in your life? Have you
settled into a routine that is just that of mere existence and
your friends are laughing and having fun?

Are you a half full or half empty person that looks at the positive
or negative side of life? Who do you like to hang around … Positive
or Negative friends?

What about your physical nature? Are you healthy and fit? Or
if not, what do you want to be or look like different then you are
now? Are you eating right, sleeping well, exercising every day?

What about your emotions? Yeh, they all have questions too ..
Do you have intimate relationships? Do you share and care with
others? Do you have friends that care and help you when you are
in need? Do you reach out and help others?

See, the subject was about questions. The purpose is to leave
enough space and pondering for what the questions might have
you ask and more of yourself.

Here is another question that I often ask especially when I go to
the grocery store and at the check out .. "how can they write any
thing new about weight loss, beauty for skin, hair stuff "? There is
an amazing thing, notice when you go to the check outs that there
is something in almost every magazine about how to loose pounds
or inches.

And, the last area of ​​question would be that of your spiritual
questions and growth areas? Do you spend time getting in touch
of the real purpose of your existence? Have you defined your real
purpose on being here?

So, what would be the answer to any or all of the above questions?
Would they not have to be different for each one of us. Why? Well,
we are all unique individuals right down to our fingerprints, personalities
experiences, and life as it is.

Do we all share a commonality? It is my belief that the answer is yes.

What would that be, well my opinion is that we are all seeking
truth fulfillment and our higher purpose for existence and servitude.

Manny Pacquiao and Mayweather Jr – Who is the World's Best?

The much-talked-about fight between the current Ring Magazine's world number one Pound-For-Pound boxer, Manny Pacquiao and the number Two Pound-for-Pound boxer Floyd Mayweather, Jr., scheduled to be held on the 10th of March 2010 , at the MGM Grand, Las Vegas, has been called off due to a disagreement about Olympic-style drug tests. The world had hoped to watch the fight between the best two boxers, only to have this hope dimmed by irreconcilable differences. The fight would have been an opportunity to set the argument as to who is the best boxer right now. Before we settle that, let's briefly examine the profile of each of the boxers.

Manny Pacquiao (Born Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao) was born on the 17th of Dec.1978 in Kibawe, Bukidnon, Philippines. He has fought 55 fights winning 50 with 38 knockouts, 3 losses and 2 draws. He is currently rated by the Ring magazine as number one pound-for-pound boxer in the world. He's former WBC World lightweight champion, WBC world super featherweight champion, IBF world super bantamweight champion, WBC world flyweight champion, former ringweight featherweight and super featherweight champion; current WBO world welterweight champion, IBO and Ring magazine light welterweight champion. Manny Pacquiao is the first boxer to win seven titles in different weight sections, and the only boxer to win the Lineal Championship ('the man who beat the man') in four different weight classes.

He has beat the likes of Mexican Mario Antonio Barrera, Erik Morales, Oscar Larios, Jorge Solis, David Diaz, Oscar De La Hoya, Ricky Hatton, Miguel Cotto, etc.

Floyd Mayweather Jr was born Floyd Sinclair on Feb 24, 1977 in Grand Rapids, Michigan in the United States of America. He is rated by the Ring magazine as the number best pound-for-pound boxer in the world current. He was rated by the Ring magazine between July 18, 2005 and June 2, 2008 as number one pound for pound boxer. He has won six boxing championships in five different weight classes. He's former WBC welterweight champion, named Ring magazine fighter of the year 1998 and 2007, he has fought 40 fights winning all with 25 knockouts without a loss or draw. He was nicknamed 'pretty boy' by his amateur team mates due to his defensive techniques and less scars on his face.

Mayweather Jr's first professional fight was against Roberto Apodaca in October 11, 1996 which he won by knockout in round 2. Since then he has beaten Genaro Hernandez, Angel Manfredy, Carlos Gerena, Gregorio Vargas, Diego Corrales, Carlos 'Famoso' Hernandez, Jesus Chavez, Jose Luis Castillo, Victoriano Sosa, Southpaw De Marcus Corley, Henry Bruseles, Arturo Gatti, Zab Judah, Carlos Baldomir, Oscar De La Hoya, Ricky Hatton, Juan Manuel Marquez.

Would the world ever have the opportunity to watch Manny Pacquiao and Mayweather Jr? Only time can tell. The record paraded by both boxers is very intimidating and the only thing that would put rest to this controversy is a fight between the two to decide who is truly the world 'best.

Lightly Flavored? Water?

It jumped right out at me, that ad in one of those decidedly upscale consumer magazines. Do not get me wrong, I do not subscribe to it. I do not fit its reader profile. Would not want to. The magazine was actually a free sample, something I'd sent for. I'll try anything that's free. Well, almost. But this particular ad just jumped out and bit me in the nose.

The headline said something read "Lightly Flavored Water!" That's what grabbed my attention. I had not heard that term before. Lightly flavored water? "OK," I said, "I gotta read more about this taste sensation" the ad was touting. I'd obviously missed one of life's most captivating taste delights.

As I continued to reading, I could not help but laugh. The ad took me back a bunch of years to a time when my wife and I – along with several other couples our age – were starting our families. Money for us and our circle of friends back then was a lot tighter than in became as the years passed.

One couple in that group included my cousin and her husband, a nice guy who was in the process of building up a business he'd bought by borrowing against everything he had. But, hey, many of us were bitten by that bug back then. We all wanted to own our own businesses. Some of us made it, some did not. Kinda like today's world.

But what made me chuckle as I continued reading about "Lightly Flavored Water" in this yuppie magazine was how the world seemed to have come almost full circle without my realizing it.

My cousin, bless her, had developed a reputation back then for being frugal. "Cheap" was actually the word we used. But only when she was not within earshot. "Frugal" was not a word we knew the meaning of. But we certainly knew from "cheap." And cheap and cousin Sherry were conspiratorial – all because of "Lightly Flavored Water."

Nothing by that name inserted back then. In fact, people were not yet aware that they would someday pay big bucks for water in bottles. Water was free. It came out of the faucet by the kitchen sink. Now, of course, no one can leave home without clutching a bottle of water – 16 ounces for just $ 1.29. On sale. Every ask yourself why you did not think of that gimmick?

"Lightly Flavored Water" is an even better gimmick. And it was invented by my cousin Sherry years ago. Although she did not realize it at the time. And she has not made even one thin dime off the idea since. But "Lightly Flavored Water" is what earned her the name, Cheap Sherry. And we were not talking about wine, either.

Every time we'd visit Sherry and her husband, their drink du jour was Kool-Aid®. But not just any old Kool-Aid. Sherry had a way for turning 10-cent pack of Kook-Aid into a endless sea of ​​Kool-Aid.

While it might have started out as a pitcher of fruit flavored water, when it got down to that last glass of Kool-Aid in that pitcher, Cindy would head back to her kitchen and refill that pitcher with more water.

What started out as a ruby ​​red, fruit flavored drink soon become pink. And by the time the evening was over that pink liquid became pale and lighter until it was almost as clear as the water she kept adding to the pitcher.

By the end of the evening what we were drinking was … You guessed it. "Lightly Flavored Water." And it certainly did not cost $ 2.00 a pint. Heck, with a dime envelope of Kool-Aid, Sherry could have served a crowd of thirsty friends for an hour. Endlessly.

Bless you cousin, inventive genius that you were, though despite a little ahead of the curve when it came to "Lightly Flavored Water." If only we'd known, we could all have been rich.

LEDs: The Light of the Future

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), "semiconductors that emit light when zapped with [positive polarity] electricity," [1] are on the verge of taking over the commercial and consumer sectors of the lighting industry. With greater efficiency, longer useful lives, and their "clean" nature, LEDs are the future of light, pushing traditional incandescent and fluorescent bulbs toward extinction. Only the higher production costs for LEDs has extended the existence of traditional bulbs.


When viewing the history of traditional bulbs, the higher costs associated with producing LEDs is not an insurmountable hurdle to overcome. The incandescent bulb lingered for about 70 years before supplanting "candles, oil lanterns, and gas lamps" as the main source of lighting. [2] When the first crude incandescent bulb was created in 1809 by Humphrey Davy, an English chemist, using two charcoal strips to produce light, it remained impractical. Later when the first true incandescent bulb was created by Warren De la Rue in 1820, utilizing a platinum filament to produce light, it was too expensive for commercial use. Only when Thomas Edison created an incandescent bulb utilizing a carbonized filament within a vacuum in 1879, did the incandescent bulb become practical and affordable for consumer use.

Although considered relatively novel, the concept for LEDs first arose in 1907 when Henry Joseph Round used a piece of Silicon Carbide (SiC) to emit a dim, yellow light. This was followed by experiments conducted by Bernhard Gudden and Robert Wichard Pohl in Germany during the late 1920s, in which they used "phosphor materials made from Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) [treated] with Copper (Cu)" to produce dim light. [3] However, during this time, a major obstacle achieved, in that many of these early LEDs could not function efficiently at room temperature. Instead, they needed to be submerged in liquid nitrogen (N) for optimum performance.

This led to British and American experiments in the 1950s that used Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) as a substitute for Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) and the creation of an LED that produced invisible, infrared light at room temperature. These LEDs immediately found use in photoelectric, sensing applications. The first "visible spectrum" LED, producing "red" light was created in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. (b. 1928) of the General Electric Company who used Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP) in place of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Once in existence, they were quickly adopted for use as indicator lights.

Before long these red LEDs were producing brighter light and even orange-colored electroluminescence when Gallium Phosphide (GaP) substrates were used. By the mid 1970s, Gallium Phoshide (GaP) itself along with dual Gallium Phosphide (GaP) substrates were being used to produce red, green, and yellow light. This ushered in the trend "toward [LED use in] more practical applications" such as calculators, digital watches and test equipment, since these expanded colors have addressed the fact that "the human eye is most responsive to yellow-green light." [4 ]

However, rapid growth in the LED industry did not begin until the 1980s when Gallium Aluminum Arsenides (GaAIAs) were developing, providing "superbright" LEDs (10x brighter than LEDs in use at the time) – "first in red, then yellow and … green, "which also requires less voltage providing energy savings. [5] This led to the concept of the first LED flashlight, in 1984.

Then in parallel with emerging laser diode technology, which focused on maximizing light output, the first "ultrabright" LEDs were created in the early 1990s through the use of Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) led in part by Toshiba's creation of an LED that " 90% or more of the generated light … "In addition, during this same period, it was discovered that different colors, including" white "(although a" true "white light was only recently produced through the use of an organic LED OLED (by Cambridge Display Technology, in the UK) could have produced through "adjustments in the size of the energy band gap" when Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) was used, much in part because of the work of Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation , who developed the world's first blue LED in 1993. [6] Today, this technology is used to produce LEDs that even emit "exotic colors" such as pink, purple and aqua as well as "genuine ultra-violet 'black' l ight. [7]

A critical milestone was reached in 1997 when it became cost effective to produce "high brightness" LEDs in which the intensity (benefits) exceeded the associated costs to produce it.
In conjuction with this milestone, newer technology is emerging that will likely reduce costs even further (and improve lighting) – the introduction of quantum dots or microscopic crystals [8]


The advantages of adopting LEDs to provide sole source lighting for every application are significant. LEDs emit virtually no heat (wasted energy) and are "in fact … cool to the touch" unlike incandescent light bulbs. They are also more durable (encased in a hardened shell and resistant to vibration and shocks) than and last up to 50 times longer than traditional incandescent and fluorescent bulbs (some can be used for up to 10 years), and they "use a greater proportion of the electricity flow through them "translating into" savings for consumers. " [9] According to the US Department of Energy," widespread adoption of LEDs could cut US consumption of electricity for lighting by 29% " [10] since they require less energy to function and by their nature, reduce the amount of air conditioning needed to keep areas cool and comfortable.

The shape of LEDs also provides lighting benefits when compared to that of traditional bulbs. Unlike incandescent and fluorescent bulbs, LEDs do not require the use of an external reflector to collect and direct their light. In addition, "LEDs light up very quickly … achiev [ing] full brightness in approximately 0.01 seconds – 10 times faster than" traditional bulbs. [11]

LEDs also produce no ultra-violet output, which can damage fabrics, unlike traditional bulbs; they are light-weight, ecologically friendly, and can produce different colors (without the use of color filters) based on the amount of power provided to each primary color ensuring that electricity is not wasted. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Nano Structures Lab) is currently conducting research that could lead to the creation of an LED "where both color and intensity (brightness) can be set electronically." [12]

Uses and the Future

As LEDs gain a greater portion of the lighting market, they are currently used in a variety of devices and applications ranging from traffic control devices (eg traffic lights, which include the single signal device that changes colors from green to yellow to red), barricade lights, hazard signs, message displays (eg Times Square, New York, commodities and news message boards, scoreboards), cellphones, televisions, large video screens used at sporting and other outdoor events (eg Miami Dolphins end-zone screen), calculators, digital clocks and watches, flashlights (including models for which 60 seconds of manual winding provides one-hour of light, eliminating the need to stockpile fresh batteries for emergencies), Christmas lights, airport runway lights, buoy lights, and automated applications (eg indicator lights as well as head lights and signal lights in some vehicles; driver's of the new 2006 Ford Mustang can even change the color (125 different variants) of their "LED-laden da shboard by using the 'MyColor' feature " [13] ).

In fact the automotive industry plans to replace all bulbs with LEDs by 2010, while efforts are currently underway to replace all traffic signals with LED devices. At the same time, plans are in place to use LEDs to light streets as well as much of the Third World and other areas "with no means of electricity" since "solar charged batteries" can power LEDs for the duration of each night. [14]

In addition, "Phillips Electronics is developing remote-controlled LED room lighting [while] Boeing Corp. plans to use LED's through the interior of its new 787 Dreamliner commercial jet. " [15]

With the promise that LEDs hold, it is likely that someday they will provide illumination for homes and offices, X-Ray capabilities for the medical field, power computer monitors, as well as an assortment of other devices and applications. The possibilities are endless. However, before LEDs can supplant the traditional bulb, "designers and advocates of the technology must overcome … the usual obstacles to mainstream market adoption: Industry-accepted standards must be developed and costs must be reduced." [16] Currently costs are coming down and some companies are moving towards these industry standards (eg Phillips Electronics is working on LED bulbs that can screw into existing light sockets, while besthomeledlighting.com already offers LED screwable bulbs – one consistent of 70 LEDS that emits a "warm white color similar to the light from an incandescent bulb " [17] using only 3 Watts of energy and another LED bulb that actually changes colors when lit). With these efforts along with the adoption, exploitation, and production of LED technology by growing numbers of companies, it is inevitable that LEDs will become the sole source of lighting rendering traditional incandescent and fluorescent bulbs extinct. In short, LEDs are the light of the future, a light that will benefit not only consumers but also industry and the Earth in general.

[1] Evan Ramstad and Kathryn Kranshold. Changing the Light Bulb. The Wall Street Journal. June 8, 2006. B1.

[2] The History of the Light Bulb. 9 June 2006. http://invsee.asu.edu/Modules/lightbulb/meathist.htm

[3] A brief history of the Light Emitting Diode (LED). Wavicle Ltd. 2002-2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.wavicle.biz/led_history.html

[4] The History of LED Technology. Marktech Optoelectronics. 2006. 8 June 2006. [http://www.marktechopto.com/Engineering%20Services/leds-drivers-displays-driver-technical-]
articles-detailed / leds-drivers-displays-driver-technical-articles-history.cfm

[5] A brief history of the Light Emitting Diode (LED). Wavicle Ltd. 2002-2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.wavicle.biz/led_history.html

[6] The History of LED Technology. Marktech Optoelectronics. 2006. 8 June 2006. [http://www.marktechopto.com/Engineering%20Services/leds-drivers-displays-driver-technical-]
articles-detailed / leds-drivers-displays-driver-technical-articles-history.cfm

[7] A brief history of the Light Emitting Diode (LED). Wavicle Ltd. 2002-2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.wavicle.biz/led_history.html

[8] Joab Jackson. Accidental Find to Signal "Lights Out" for Incandescent Bulbs? National Geographic.com. 1 November 2005. 9 June 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1101_051101_quantum_lightbulb.html

[9] Joab Jackson. Accidental Find to Signal "Lights Out" for Incandescent Bulbs? National Geographic.com. 1 November 2005. 9 June 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1101_051101_quantum_lightbulb_2.html

[10] Joab Jackson. Accidental Find to Signal "Lights Out" for Incandescent Bulbs? National Geographic.com. 1 November 2005. 9 June 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1101_051101_quantum_lightbulb_2.html

[11] Light-emitting diode. Wikipedia.com. 2006. 9 June 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEDs

[12] A brief history of LED lighting. 9 June 2006. []
app% 2520notes / appnote022.pdf + A + Brief + History + of + LED + Lighting & hl = en & gl = us & ct = clnk & cd = 3

[13] Evan Ramstad and Kathryn Kranshold. Changing the Light Bulb. The Wall Street Journal. June 8, 2006. B6.

[14] A brief history of the Light Emitting Diode (LED). Wavicle Ltd. 2002-2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.wavicle.biz/led_history.html

[15] Evan Ramstad and Kathryn Kranshold. Changing the Light Bulb. The Wall Street Journal. June 8, 2006. B6.

[16] Joe Knisley. Understanding LED Technology. EC & M. 1 April 2002. 8 June 2006. http://www.ecmweb.com/mag/electric_understanding_led_technology/

[17] 70-LED Light Bulb, White Large Globe. 10 June 2006. [http://www.besthomeledlighting.com/product/G32-120-E27-70-W]


A brief history of LED lighting. 9 June 2006. [http: ///]
+ A + Brief + History + of + LED + Lighting & hl = en & gl = us & ct = clnk & cd = 3

A brief history of the Light Emitting Diode (LED). Wavicle Ltd. 2002-2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.wavicle.biz/led_history.html

Cameron Walker. Green Christmas: Tips for an Eco-Friendly Holiday. Changing the Light Bulb. The Wall Street Journal. June 8, 2006.

Joab Jackson. Accidental Find to Signal "Lights Out" for Incandescent Bulbs? National Geographic.com. 1 November 2005. 9 June 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1101_051101_quantum_lightbulb.html

Joe Knisley. Understanding LED Technology. EC & M. 1 April 2002. 8 June 2006. http://www.ecmweb.com/mag/electric_understanding_led_technology/

LED Light Bulbs. 10 June 2006. http://www.besthomeledlighting.com/all_led_bulbs?gclid=CNmA2KKDvYUCFT1qGgodRQN7qA

Light-emitting diode. Wikipedia.com. 2006. 9 June 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEDs

Mary Bellis. The Inventions of Thomas Edison. About, Inc. A Part of The New York Times Company. 2006. 9 June 2006. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bledison.htm

The History of LED Technology. Marktech Optoelectronics. 2006. 8 June 2006. [http://www.marktechopto.com/Engineering%20Services/leds-drivers-displays-driver-]
technical-articles-detailed / leds-drivers-displays-driver-technical-articles-history.cfm

The History of the Light Bulb. 9 June 2006. http://invsee.asu.edu/Modules/lightbulb/meathist.htm

Investing in Antiques in an Unsure Economy

I was in the hospital waiting room … waiting and waiting. Anyways, it gave me some time to read. I was thumbing through a Finance magazine and seen some savvy investors. They were not placing all their money in the stock market, the bank or stuffing it their mattress for a rainy day. They were investing in what they loved. Collectibles, antiques etc. One man was collecting watches. He started when he was very young. He has quite a collection now in his 40's.

I have always loved the jewelry from days gone by. There is something about that time. Everything was original. Not a copy of someone elses work, nothing looked the same as the other. People had vision, originality. They dared to express themselves through fancy purses, jewelry, fine watches or really awesome muscle cars! I dream of a 1970 Superbird. Ok, I'm drooling and my keyboard is starting to get wet.

Okay, given, people DO still have originality today, but not as much as then. How much "retro" do you see? Point made. That is because those eras were cool! Too cool to leave alone and not replicate once again.

I have collected many items myself over the years. I am not an expert by any means, but I can say this … I furnished my entire house with beautiful antique furniture for less than the cost of new solid wood dining room set. That was before antiques were cool. Now I'm "hot", "cool", "hip", "rad". Are any of those terms still used today?

Find something you love. Collect it. Research it first though. You need to make sure you are not paying too much for the item. The goal is a "return" on your investment. Sometimes with a great deal, that return can be immediate. Do not get excited … it does not happen that often. The nice thing about collecting what you love is that you also get to enjoy it. That is the big bonus!

So, with that said, again, collect what you love. Cherish it, show it off to your friends and family, love it and hang onto it for a few years and then when your ready, and only when your ready, cash it in.

Where can you find these wonderful items you love? Many states have Auctions. My best rule for an auction is to go to the one that is not as popular as another set for the same day. For example, I live in Northwest Ohio. We have some awesome Auctions around here. There could be 7 Auctions; all in the same day, within my driving area. If an Auction has a lot of RS Prussia china, or other very bought after pieces, I will skip that Auction … unless you collect RS Prussia of course. The reason I would skip it? Most of the Antique Dealers will be there! This means the prices will go higher than I am willing to spend. I will go to a smaller Auction. Many Dealers will not go to these auctions as they see them as a waste of time. What does this mean for you? WooHoo …. BONUS! I have benefited many times over this way. I bought a beautiful old dresser for $ 2.00 and at another Auction a 1800's pump organ for $ 50.00; and too many more to list! There is a good example of instant return.

If the State you reside in does not have Auctions, maybe they have Estate Sales. Egypt garage sales. If you chose garage sales, get there early … everyone else will. Church bazaars are another great deal opportunity. I just went to a church bazaar the other day. I spent $ 50.00 on jewelry there. The items I purchased are worth at least $ 300 to $ 400. A few items I will hold onto, the others I will sell.

I hope this helps you and will make you take a look at an old piece of jewelry your Grandmother might want to give you. It may not look like much to you, but the value could be significant. Cherish the antiques, it is the original, usually handmade item that someone once loved dearly and could be cherished again … by you!

Top Mistakes In Advertising & How To Avoid Them: Part 3 of 10 Part Series Identify Your Target Group

Welcome along once again, I’m thrilled you’re able to join me for a few minutes and what is article number three of our series of ten, on the Top Ten Mistakes in Advertising and How to Fix Them.

As we witnessed in articles 1 & 2, we talked about testing and about the critical importance of identifying each and every ad you prepare. Those should be the foundation for everything that goes out to the marketplace.

One challenge that I’ve run into on a number of times is that my clients have considered themselves to be the target group. And while that may or may not be the case, in the majority you are selling a product or service to fix someone else’s problem, and your tastes as the product or service solution are probably really different from the recipient who needs your expertise, your product your service.

I had one client who was infamously attached to a particular media, and it’s a very fine media, but it was the only one he would use because it was the only one that he felt delivered the message that he would see.

My challenge to him was quite simply, Ian, please remember you are not the target audience for what we are trying to sell, and I applaud you for being so attached to this particular media but it should not be the only vehicle that we utilize.

Now ultimately he relented and we did use a mix including his favorite but used the mix of media to reach a broader platform and still stay within budget.

I think that’s a critical component for too many advertisers. They unfortunately and unwittingly sometimes have blinders on so that they only want to use the media that they see, and recognize, and understand and appreciate and are familiar with, and that’s excellent.

It’s always a good comfort zone to be using something that you know and like and trust, and importantly if you have tested and if it’s working for you keep using it. I have no quarrel with that, however I want you to make sure you don’t discount or dismiss other opportunities… because I never read that magazine, I don’t listen to that radio station, I never get home in time to watch TV.

You’re right! You don’t! But you are not selling to you, you were selling to the hundreds, thousands, hundreds of thousands who are interested in your product,

in your service and they don’t really care what would you watch. What you want to do is put your message in front of them on the platforms and the times that resonate for them.

If you have a chance to see it that’s great, and you will see the commercial before it goes to air and we can give you scheduling as to when it will be on air if you want to take the time to record it and watch it later.

We can give you a list of the websites that we’ll be appearing on if you want to personally go in and look at it, that’s excellent. But don’t dismiss other media options just because they are not familiar to you. They are familiar to your audience. Your media professionals should be able to put in front of you empirical data showing this is why you need to utilize radio in addition to magazine.

Why online platforms are going to be a powerful assist to the magazine and out of home campaign. Whatever it is, firstly it should be measurable, empirical to justify it, but importantly it has to be reaching your preferred target group.

So as I mentioned at the outset, the chances are pretty good you’re not your products’ target group so don’t just rely on your gut or your instinct or your own taste in media for where to place the ad.

Goodness sake I’ve placed hundreds maybe thousands of ads in media that I know from a buyer’s standpoint and not necessarily a users standpoint. And that’s fine because like it or not, I’m not always a target group for such-and-such a product.

But I do know the right media to get your message in front of the proper target.

So when you’re developing who your audience is, please take the time to be as specific as possible. You don’t want to get so finite that you end up with a universe of twelve people and I’ve seen that happen.

But don’t pick the wrong place or the wrong target group or both and then wonder gee, why this is such a lackluster response. Man, nobody is buying my new space-age shovel, my post hole diggers, my whatever, they need to know that you’re providing a solution and the solution it provides has to be what they need, and has to be in the media that they are going to respond to and act on.

One client in particular was a real sports fan and yours truly as well. Absolutely pick, a sport and I’m there. But they put the ad on the sports radio network because that’s what they listen to. However their primary audience was for younger females who had little, if any interest in most of these sporting programs. It’s disappointing because it was such a powerful campaign if it had been properly directed to the right audience. So here’s what I want you to do.

To fix mistake number three, do the proper research find out who is really buying your product or service and maybe that’s a survey, a store intercept survey, an online survey, a mail out, something that genuinely tells you who is buying your product or who you think your candidates are.

You can get as specific as possible by gender and age, by income and lifestyle, and a host of other demographic details that will help you zero in on them. As much as you’re able. Please do not rely on the universe of one sampling. Well my mom liked that. Oh perfect. Love your mom. You should always love Mom, but Mom’s not necessarily buying the new car ramps or the trampoline for the kids.

That’s not to say they’re not influencers, but understand importantly who is going to be making those decisions. If it is Mom that’s great.

If it’s Dad or a Dad and Mom or if it’s the boss or if it’s the treasurer, or your financial officer in the company you really truly need to know who you’re going after to make ads work harder, be more impactful and importantly cost you less, yes, cost you less.

You will get a better return on investment and give you more to spend for future marketing if you take the time to identify who it is you want to go after. What message you want to put in front of them, and which media to best reach them. Believe me, after three decades, I can tell you it is well worth the research to know your audience.

Okay, so what you’re looking for are some characteristics which consistently define your audience then you can create the message using the right radio station or website, outdoor media, newspapers that efficiently and effectively reaches them.

Equally as I mentioned at the outset take the time to test the ad. Or multiple ads on a small scale to see what works. You’ll have a lot of coding in place and a lot of planning to do but it will pay dividends when you hit the sweet spot of the ad, or the ad in the right media or media mix that bring in the customers.

By the way, many of the local media sales reps should be able to give you detailed profiles from all of their resources to give you a clear handle on who you’re after.

Let them do some leg work. Tell them who you want to reach and in many cases it’s a very specific age and income bracket that you’re after and you want to see how well their media, whatever radio station, magazine, newspaper, it happens to be, you want to see how well their media gets in front of those audience members and eyeballs on a regular basis and can you track how well they’re performing.

Respectfully I don’t mean just ‘Likes’ that’s a certain, KPI that seems to be quite a hot button and that’s great. But that’s not really a true measurement of how well the product is doing. You want a measurable return on investment. You want to be able to say that we spent $1,000 for this ad and it brought in $2,000 dollars worth of new business. Perfect.

If all you’re getting is 500 likes or 35 shares etc.,… that’s nice. That’s not what your marketing should be about. It should be bringing you back at least a dollar for every dollar you put out there. So when you are testing your ads take the time to do it on a small scale. Here’s the best analogy that I will leave you with, you don’t need to eat a whole bowl of soup to find out if it’s salty usually one or two spoonfuls will tell you

Then you’ll decide whether or not you want to eat the rest of it or move on to something else. With that I bid you adieu for number three. I look forward to seeing you in Article # 4- Learn To Be Consistent.

The Three Most Important Words In Communication

Ask a successful agent for the three most important words in real estate, and you’ll get the answer: “location, location and location.”

Ask a successful communicator for the three most important words in public relations, and you should get the answer: “repetition, repetition and repetition.”

Just as the geographic landscape is littered with properties that suffer for their poor location, the communication landscape is littered with public relations efforts that fail to leverage repetition to engage important audiences successfully.

Whether the goal is to sell products, mobilize employees or build a reputation, the need for repetition is constant.

Yet even smart communicators who understand “location, location, location” fail to appreciate the benefits of consistent (and repetitive) communication. Here are five reasons why repetition is the key element to successful public relations:

1. It’s noisy in here! Whether you are trying to engage a dozen employees, or a public of hundreds of millions, cultural “noise” bombards us. Chirping cell phones, chiming e-mail, traffic, billboards, street noise, and hundreds of other demands on our attention act as communication speed bumps for your message. Without sophisticated repetition, your message may be heard only in part, if at all. You can’t share it just once.

2. That’s why they call it public relations! Just as a personal relationship begins with a mutual dialogue, a trying-out period in which the participants build trust, so it is with successful public relations. Whether the audience is employees, skeptical journalists, or consumers, a relationship is built through a series of interactions that establish for all parties involved that it’s OK to continue the conversation. Successful public relations cannot be achieved through a series of one-night “message” stands or press conference “drive-bys.”

3. We shall honor no reputation before its time. For a company and its products, a reputation is built over time, not in a week or a month. That’s why regular PR activities — news on hires, promotions, product success stories, executive speeches, community initiatives, etc. help build reputation and educate audiences about an organization’s values and commitments, as well as the benefits of its products or services.

4. Don’t take my word for it, ask Oprah. Our skeptical culture is not only cluttered with information, but burdened by a complete breakdown in the old means of determining which information is important. We need guides to help us cut through the morass of messages. That’s why credible, respected figures such as Oprah Winfrey carry such clout. Though many seem to think reading is on the decline in this country, the truth is we are publishing and reading more books than ever before. But it’s impossible to figure out which books deserve our attention. That’s why Oprah’s book club is so successful — we hunger for guidance we can trust and we look to opinion leaders we respect to provide it. Successful public relations engages trusted opinion leaders as advocates, to lend credibility to important communications.

5. The weight of the evidence is compelling. In our cluttered culture, with competition for attention and a skeptical distrust of many messengers, audiences intuitively seek confirmation of what they hear and see from multiple sources. If a CEO says he’s committed his company to the environment, that’s not good enough for most audiences (including employees). But if the company wins an environmental award, is praised by the leader of an independent environmental group, and is the subject of a fair but positive profile in a national magazine, the audience is much more likely to believe what the CEO says — the claim can easily be evaluated because there is plenty of evidence that the statement is accurate.

Is repetition the only important concept for successful public relations? Of course not. But just as breathing is essential to life, repetition is an essential element in successful public relations. Is it possible to enjoy long-term PR success without repetition? Maybe. But I wouldn’t hold my breath.